FAMILY FUN AND GAMES
11:00 | OVER 5s | €3.50
5 FEB | 5 MAR | 2 APR | 7 MAY | 4 JUN | 2 JUL | 6 AUG | 3 SEPT | 1 OCT | 5 NOV | 3 DEC
ADVANCE BOOKING | [email protected] | +351 218 800 620
SERVIÇO EDUCATIVO CASTELO DE S. JORGE (CASTELO DE S. JORGE EDUCATIONAL SERVICE)
Os Arautos da Brincadeira (the Heralds of Jest), Dom Berengário and Dom Segismundo, only rest when everyone joins in the fun, with specially prepared games of yesteryear, jokes, surprises and much more.
ARTES BÉLICAS NO CASTELO (THE ARTS OF WARFARE AT THE CASTLE)
11:00 | OVER 5s | Castelo S. Jorge ticket
OFÍCIO BÉLICO (WAR OFFICE)
13th CENTURY – THE BATTLE OF LAS NAVAS DE TOLOSA (1212)
– Iberia unites to combat the Almohad menace
8 JAN | 9 APR | 9 JUL | 8 OCT
The Almohads represent the rebirth of Moorish power in North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. Following the Moorish victory at the Battle of Alarcos and the striking invasion of the Christian kingdoms, it is deemed necessary to put an end to the Moorish ascendancy.
The battle was the result of a long-planned offensive by King Alfonso VIII of Castile, who managed to gather together forces from the Castile, Aragon, Navarre and Portugal (as well as a small contingent from Leon) into a Crusade. These were strengthened by many religious military orders and several groups of crusader volunteers from across Europe (French, English, Germans and Italians). The participation of knights from these religious orders was of particular significance as, in reality, they fought with a squire and one or two pages, making them an important tactical force.
The number of Arab prisoners was so high that the Order of Calatrava constructed the Fort of Calatrava La Nova in just 4 years exclusively using the labour of these captured prisoners. The victory led to the internal collapse of the Moroccan dynasty. Without one great centralising and unifying power, the Al-Andalus is once again divided into numerous small kingdoms (taifas) that cannot stop the advances and conquests of the Christian kingdoms to the north. In little under two decades, the Almohads are confined to the Kingdom of Granada and within 40 years Portugal concludes the Reconquista with the capture of the Kingdom of the Al-Gharb.
A brilliant flanking manoeuvre allowed the Christian forces to keep the central ground against the Moorish assault and then make a counterattack with the heavy cavalry, capturing the palisade of the Vizier who had to make a hurried escape.
14th CENTURY – THE BATTLE OF ALJUBARROTA (1385)
– English support prevents union with Castile
12 FEB | 14 MAY | 13 AUG | 12 NOV
Following the death of King Ferdinand I, the legitimate and legal heir to the Portuguese throne was King John I of Castile, by way of his marriage to King Ferdinand’s daughter, Beatrice.
The possibility of peacefully submitting Portugal to Castile led to a civil war known as the Crisis of 1383-1385. The support of the nobility was split, but the resistance centred around John, Great Master of Aviz, who enjoyed the backing of the petty nobility, burgesses and England. However, supporters of Beatrice were able to count on the support of the King of Castile’s forces and in 1385 a huge army heads for Lisbon. A siege like the one of the previous year must be averted if the recently-crowned King John I isn’t to see his aspirations severely compromised.
The plan of Nuno Álvares Pereira (The Saint Constable”) manages to halt the enemy army (made up of Castilian, Portuguese and French troops) in a decisive battle. There is a great disparity in the comparative strengths of the forces, but the tactics tested at the Battle of Atoleiros (1384) afford Pereira’s men some confidence.
The outcome was less than certain, but the tactical arrangement with marksmen in the wings (English crossbowmen and longbowmen) reinforced with much Portuguese courage and blood ends up carrying the day.
15th CENTURY – THE BATTLE OF TORO (1476)
– Portugal and Aragon get involved in the Castilian Civil War
12 MAR | 11 JUN | 10 SEPT | 10 DEC
Interfering in the internal affairs of other kingdoms, particularly dynastical successions, was a favourite pastime of the royal Iberian houses.
With the death of Henry VII, two rival factions are formed and the resulting impasse can only be resolved by military means, plunging Castile into a civil war. Each side gathers its supporters, with the kingdoms of Portugal and Aragon finding themselves on opposing sides. The battle is long, fierce and confused, lasting well into the evening. The forces of King Afonso V suffer heavy casualties and collapse, but the wing commanded by Prince John of Portugal (later known as the “Perfect Prince”) takes control of the battlefield.
On both the Castilian and Portuguese sides, the “musketeers” distinguish themselves for their ability to repel enemy cavalry and inflict heavy losses on the nobility.
DANCES WITH HISTORY
11:00 | OVER 5s | Castelo S. Jorge ticket
ASSOCIAÇÃO DANÇAS COM HISTÓRIA
AND IF THERE WERE OTHER WORLDS…
Illustrating the History of the Portuguese Expansion through the dances of the time is an immense task. How can we picture these brave Portuguese folk if not with a sword in one hand and a quill in the other? And yet…other sounds and harmonies have travelled down to us, dances and melodies, sorrows and joys which the bodies of both courtiers and commoners danced with uncommon mastery. And other places and times have also contributed to the music and inspiration for some of our dances.
Three shows, three eras from the Age of Discoveries, three eras of different dances, three monarchs: King John I, King Manuel I, King John IV. Let’s return, then, to the Portuguese past, carried on the winds of music and the undulating movements of the dancers of the Dances with History Association at the Castelo de S. Jorge. Performed at the Castelo de S. Jorge, celebrating Lisbon’s crowning as the Ibero-American Capital of Culture 2017.
DANCES FROM THE TIME OF KING JOHN I
15 JAN | 16 APR | 16 JUL | 15 OCT
In the beginning there was the sea. Distant, unknown, dark. Populated by monsters and fears, place of legends and dreams. How could you not venture out if, in the poor land of Portugal, the hardship was great, but the hope greater still?
The sounds and dances of the dawn of the Portuguese Expansion, from the beginning of the 15th Century (a time when Ceuta was near and the sea in front of you was an open door to somewhere else), are divided between yearning and fear. It was the time of Bartolomeu Dias and Gil Eanes…
The Branles are in fashion; of popular origin, they were danced until the middle of the 16th century. But this is the time of the Basse Danse, slow and ceremonious, a dance of the nobility and considered the queen of dances. The most important dance treatises of this period are Basses Danses de la Cour de Bourgogne and the manuscripts of Margaret of Austria.
DANCES FROM THE TIME OF KING MANUEL I
19 FEB | 20 AUG | 19 NOV
The high point of the Portuguese Expansion followed on soon after its beginning. Portuguese sailing ships reached India and Brazil via the Indian and Pacific oceans; the padrão (a large stone cross with the Portuguese coat of arms) was planted on the coasts of Africa and America. As the 15th century ended and the 16th century began, Portugal had overcome fear and the sea, venturing beyond this Mare Nostrum within which so many had remained forever.
Experience the melodies and dances of this period of glory, when any dream seemed a mere dance step away and the future seemed to smile upon Portugal: the sounds and dances of the pinnacle of the Expansion (second half of the 15th and first half of the 16th centuries). It was the time of Gama and Cabral…
Pavanes and Galliards, Spagnolettas and Cascardas are the dances of the day. Dances in pairs and trios with complex choreographies, cleverly described in the treatises of T. Arbeau (Orquesographia) and Fabrizio Caroso (Il Ballerino), 1st ed. 1590.
DANCES FROM THE TIME OF KING JOÃO IV
19 MAR | 18 JUN | 17 SEPT | 17 DEC
These are the trying times of the second half of the 17th century, when a people reclaimed what was theirs from the ruins of a usurped empire. After the usurpation came the restoration. Greatness had already been lost, that much is certain, and with it the glories of old. Honour, dignity and determination to preserve independence remained.
The dances were of an age of decadence, in which the court and nation resisted foreign domination. Amongst the sounds of instruments, the march of war could be heard in the distance: the sounds and dances of the Restoration of Independence (17th Century) and the reconquest of Brazil which owed itself, once again, to the courage of those who had previously discovered the world. This was the time of Salvador Correia de Sá and André de Albuquerque Ribafria…
The dances bring to mind the English country dances which were in fashion across Europe throughout the 17th century, thanks to the dance treatises of J.Playford. In England, the taste for serious music took hold due to the publication of various works on musical theory by John Playford. However, what made Playford famous were the old country dances in his most well-known publication: The English Dancing Master, whose 1st edition dates back to 1650. From the middle of the 17th Century country, country dancing is known all around Europe, via France, under the name of contredanse.
11:00 | OVER 6s | €3.50
ADVANCE BOOKING | [email protected] | +351 218 800 620
CASTELO DE SÃO JORGE EDUCATIONAL SERVICE
BEFORE THE CASTLE
22 JAN | 23 JUL
Discover all the history and archaeology of the periods before the construction of the castle: the cultures that arrived in the city of Lisbon between the 8th and 3rd centuries B.C. and the impact that they had on trade, urbanism and the material culture of the period. Learn about the marks left by arrival of the Roman Republican Army in the 2nd century B.C. and how their presence would later transform Lisbon into an imperial Roman city until the arrival of the Visigoths in the 5th century.
THE CASTLE, THE ALCÁÇOVA (CITADEL) AND THE CONQUEST OF THE CITY
26 FEB | 27 AUG
An exploration of the medieval castle and citadel and its relationship with the city itself. Focusing on the defensive structures of the medieval city of the 11th to 12th centuries, as well as the social, religious and economic situation of the time. This was the scene encountered by the Christian military contingent led by Afonso Henriques who, after a long siege of approximately four months, entered the city on 25 October, 1147, hoisting the Christian standard.
THE CASTLE FROM THE 13th TO 16th CENTURY: THE ROYAL RESIDENCE
26 MAR | 24 SEPT
Visible from several points of the city, the castle of Lisbon rises up on the hill standing out from the contemporary urban fabric. Within its walls, we might wonder where the Royal Court was situated. But the Lisbon reality is different from other European realities and the castelejo (uppermost part of the castle) is a fortress. Throughout the visit, we will explore the visible traces of the Royal Palace of the Alcáçova, used by the Kings of Portugal during the transition from the Middle Ages to the Modern Age. Subject of successive transformations between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries, it witnessed many historical figures and events of relevance to the history of the country.
THE MILITARY BARRACKS: FROM THE PHILIPS TO THE FRENCH INVASIONS
23 APR | 22 OCT
This is a visit that spans centuries of turmoil, occupation, ruin and reconstruction. With the death of King Sebastian and the end of the Aviz dynasty, Portugal loses its independence to Spain and, under the King Philips of Spain, the Castle and Palace take on functions of a military nature. The 1st December 1640 returns the Castle to Portugal, but the destructive earthquake of the 18th century leave it far from intact when the Napoleonic troops arrive. The palace, prison, barracks and Torre do Tombo are areas that have undergone change, but that hold unique memories of the history of the city.
THE CASTLE IN THE 1ST REPUBLIC
28 MAY | 26 NOV
As light dawns on 5th October 1910, following violent clashes in Lisbon over 24 hours previously, the Republican Party flag is raised in the Castelo de S. Jorge. The Republic is declared in Lisbon and a telegraph is sent to inform the rest of the country. During the First Republic, an event marks the History of the western world: World War I. The Portuguese Expeditionary Force leaves for Flanders, fighting in the trenches alongside the Allies. Until the Constitution of 1933 the Castle of S. Jorge is once again the scene of violent events that will be highlighted on this visit.
THE CASTLE AND THE RESTORATION OF 1938/41
The 1940 centenary celebrations commemorating the founding and restoration of Portugal, and promoted by the Estado Novo (New State), led to a wide-reaching restoration programme of the nation’s castles. The Castelo de S. Jorge, classified as a national monument since 1910, is subject to a complex restoration project resulting in its current majesty, the most striking features of which will be explored on this visit.